It may be “old school”, but this is still probably one of the best embryology videos out there. Watch it with your notes, textbook or review book in hand as an additional guide and it definitely makes things much clearer. Always worth going back for review if you’ve seen it before too!
See this video for an excellent explanation of superantigens and the sequence of events they induce. A prototypical example of a superantigen is toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST) released by S. aureus.
In a nutshell:
1) Superantigen binds periphery of T-cell and MHC molecule receptors
2) Non-selective T-cell activation with release of IFN-gamma
3) Macrophage activation and release of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha
4) Non-specific inflammatory response
I remember when I used to get all the different parts of the sarcomere mixed up, but with a few simple tricks you can remember it easy and long-term.
First, understand the the I band is isotropic and the A band is anisotropic. Although these terms technically refer to the behavior of polarized light passing through, I like to think of isotropic = moving and anisotropic = non-moving (remember that “an-“ means “without”).
So how do you remember which is the thick filament and which is the thin filament? Just remember that the heavier something is, the less likely it’ll move! In other words, think of the thick filaments as too heavy to move which means they’re the A bands because “an-“ (or “a” if that’s easier for you) means “without”. By default, the thin filament will be the I band. Additionally, the letter “I” is thinner than the letter “A” so it’s gotta be the “thin” filament right?
Now Z lines are you endpoints which should be easy to remember, because the letter “Z” is at the end of the alphabet. This actually ties into the next point too.
The points that “move” during muscle contraction are the H band and I band which spell “HI”. In other words, the “HI” bands bring the ends of the sarcomere (Z lines) closer together so they can say “Hi”!
Obviously this doesn’t cover everything you should know about the sarcomere and muscle contraction, but hopefully it helps get you started if you were having trouble!
Check out the latestMedical Minded Podcast episode, Gram Staining: Gram-Negative vs Gram-Positive Bacteria which covers what gram staining is, how it works and how it is used to differentiate gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This is a must know for anything who is a med student, premed or even just taking a biology course. I know this episode may be basic for some people, but it’s essential information and it’s always good to work on the fundamentals!
Hey everyone! Please go check out the latest podcast episode covering Staphylococcus aureus. This is definitely a big one to know! It’s also one of the more complex organisms in terms of learning the different virulence factors, so it may take a few listens to get down the material. Don’t get discouraged! And remember that these podcasts serve as a supplement to your own materials. Hope this helps out with your studies!
Also, if you could give a rating in the iTunes store that’d be great! Thanks!
Here are a couple cytokines cartoons that I created during my immunology/microbiology course. I’ll include them in the resources page as well for future reference. I understand you may find some variability in the functions of the shown cytokines, but I primarily used First Aid and BRS as my reference materials. These cartoons definitely helped make things stick for me so hopefully they help others as well!
I came across a well-constructed “T Cell Biology” lecture series produced by the Cleveland Clinic while scanning through YouTube. It’s already been added to the video section of this blog and has a lot of information. Highly recommended for anything who is learning immunology or even if you just need/want a refresher.
Click the link to see the entire videos series and I’ve included the 1st video in the playlist as an example.
Here’s a great video by Khan Academy on how the influenza virus invades cells. It has some great mnemonics for remembering the functions of the virulence factors as well. Check it out!
A basic virus mind map of the DNA and RNA viruses that I made. I may continue to add to it and publish a more detailed one in the future. The link should allow you to download the full PDF version. Hope it helps some people in microbiology!
Everyone has doubts about their future!